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Incidentally, there is not one single example of a victorious African army stealing the cultural objects of the defeated and proudly displaying in its country.

The British looting of the Benin bronzes was from a legal point of view illegal and illegitimate. It follows from the above that the looters, the British, could not transfer any proprietary rights to the Germans. They may have paid cash but the objects they allegedly bought were tainted with illegality ab initio. Moreover, the Germans knew very well that the objects they were buying were illegally transferred from Benin City to London. They bought the Benin Bronzes, from a notorious British auctioneer, Webster who also sold Benin artefacts to Austrians.

Many of the objects the Germans and Austrians bought must have had some of the blood of the people of Benin on them, fresh from the battlefield. Is that what the Berlin government regards as legal acquisition?

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The conflict that eventually led to the looting of the Benin artefacts cannot be seen as a remote consequence of the Berlin Conference but must be accepted as a direct result of that division of areas of control by the Europeans. Contracts of purchase between the Ethnologisches Museum and British dealers should not be treated like ordinary contracts between German tourists and English shopkeepers in Regents Street.

The historical context must be seriously considered to give the act of purchase its full significance and meaning. The agreed aim of all participants is in the long term to find a possibility to present in Nigeria objects from the Benin collections in Europe.

Stockholm and Dresden, holders of large collections of Benin artefacts, were about documentation of the artefacts; a documentation that would also be placed in the internet and an eventual display of some of the artefacts in Nigeria.

Up to now, many had the understanding and the impression that these meetings were about the restitution of at least some of the looted Benin bronzes.

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Newspaper reports as well as statements from the National Commission had led to the belief that some progress had been made in the direction of restitution. Though the document issued at the end of that meeting was entitled The Benin Plan of Action on Restitution, there was nothing in it that envisaged restitution of the precious Benin artefacts.

No wonder that the representative of the Oba declared he would not take part any more in such meetings in future. Besides, the British Museum did not take part in the meeting.

One cannot help feeling that the name of ICOM was thrown into the statement by the Berlin government to secure for the museums a veneer of legitimacy and legality. The statement seeks to create an aura of rectitude around the museum in order to avert criticisms especially from the youth.

If the Berlin museums were really conscious of their historical and political responsibility as regards artefacts acquired in the colonial era, they would not want to be seen arguing with Africans about the return of cultural artefacts that are undoubtedly African.

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The cruelty and unbelievable oppression in German colonies require no elaboration here. When it is said that many artefacts were given to the museums as gifts by German travellers, it should be remembered that these were objects extracted from Africans who had no choice but to hand over to the Europeans whatever they wanted.

Some individual contemporaries were perfectly aware of this fact. I believe that half of your museum consists of stolen objects. We need only remember Namibia, formerly German colony of South West Africa where the cruelty of German colonial rule exceeded all bounds and stamped Germany with a terrible reputation only surpassed by Nazi Germany. Germany still refuses to apologize or pay compensation.

They should be interested in returning at least some of the looted artefacts and seek a reasonable compromise. They would in any case seek to avoid endless discussions on such an issue and endeavour to prevent any impression of continuity in the present and past German practice and ideology with regard to collecting cultural artefacts of others.

But can one achieve this and still maintain the loot of the past, albeit via the British? From the answer of the Berlin government, there is no trace of a sense of historical responsibility and moral consciousness. The government is out of tune with the spirit of our times which is to return artefacts wrongly taken away from colonial and other oppressed peoples.

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The ton and response of the Berlin government correspond to the tenets of the now discredited Declaration on the Importance and Value of Universal Museums DIVUM in so far as the German authorities refuse to envisage the return of any of the Benin bronzes to the people of Benin. They are willing to assist the Nigerians in cataloguing the Benin Bronzes; they are willing to put this catalogue on the internet.

These Benin bronzes are largely records and symbols of power and to return them would imply that the West has finally accepted Africans as capable of looking after themselves and not in need of any outside control. Such a concession has never been considered by the West which maintains supremacy even in matters of African art.

There are by far better and more African art icons in Europe than in Africa itself. I hope that this appeal shall be taken in good faith, in brotherhood, love for one another and in bridging gaps between the rich and powerful countries of the world and the weak.

A few unimportant objects which were kept in the old local authority museum in Benin were transferred to the new museum and a few more objects were brought in from Lagos. We tried using casts and photographs to fill gaps but the desired effect was unachievable. We therefore thought of making an appeal to the world for loans or return of some works so that Benin might also be to show its own works at least to its own people. The resolution was modified to make it read like a general appeal for restitution or return and then adopted.

We have known of secretaries throwing into wastepaper basket important documents in order to reduce the load of materials to be filed but would a German embassy act in this way?

But would the German government not hear about this and take notice of the intention and desire of the Oba of Benin? In the last few years, the demand for the return of the Benin bronzes has been repeated at every Benin exhibition and we can confirm that German museums and other institutions were well represented. Prince There ensued a debate over restitution where Prof. We promptly and unambiguously rejected the baseless arguments.

It once again, reminds the world of a civilization truncated by the imperial forces of the colonialist. The British kept some of the loot for themselves and sold the rest to European and American buyers.

As you put this past on show today, it is our prayer that the people and government of Austria will show humaneness and magnanimity and return to us some of these objects which found their way to your country. The Preface was signed by Prof. It is clear from the rejection by the museum directors that the demand by the Oba was directed to all the Western holders of the looted bronzes and not only Austria. The demand made at the symposium by the brother of the Oba is also to be considered as a direct request to all holders of Benin bronzes.

The disrespect of a reigning monarch by Western museums and governments cannot be accepted as sufficient for declaring such requests, made in writing or to the hearing of representatives and scholars, as non-existent and should not be allowed to negate such clear and direct expressions of will. The declaration by the Berlin authorities that they have not been directly or indirectly approached with a demand for restitution by the Oba of Benin or the Nigerian government is based on a basic assumption that a person or entity that has lost property must submit a request to the holder of the property.

In other words that in the absence of such a request the Germans cannot return the Benin bronzes. Readers will no doubt be well aware of the farcical games played with the Egyptians regarding the demand of the restitution of Nefertiti.

The restitution of cultural objects to the countries of origin has become a permanent agenda item. Several international conferences have also urged the return of artefacts. Indeed some acts of refusal to return cultural objects, such as crosses or other religious symbols must be considered as violations of religious freedom.

The religious and ritual objects of the Edo are necessary if they are to follow their tradition and religion. It is remarkable that some States that pride themselves of their religion as part of their culture and even require immigrants to adopt these values do not seem worried by the thought that they are preventing others from following and cultivating their traditional and religious values.

They have also often served to inform and engage broader societal concerns. This should be undertaken in an impartial manner, based on scientific, professional and humanitarian principles as well as applicable local, national and international legislation, in preference to action at a governmental or political level.

Therefore, the declaration that the Berlin authorities have not been approached directly or indirectly by either the Oba of Benin or the Nigerian authorities, cannot be accepted as an excuse for not returning or discussing the return of the cultural objects to the Oba of Benin. Notwithstanding the above observations, we have suggested that Nigerian authorities write directly to museums with large collections of Benin artefacts in order to prevent the holders of looted artefacts from saying that there has not been any demand, an easy but unconvincing argument.

The argument demonstrates beyond all reasonable doubt the unwillingness of the holder to envisage restitution. This position strengthens the determination of the holder not to consider the issue of restitution on its merits by blocking the demand at its very first step. Until today, there has not even been an acknowledgement of receipt from both institutions.

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Such is the conduct of those allegedly promoting understanding between different cultures of the world. As has been correctly stated above, the British sold the looted artefacts in London, on open market.

This racist conception which existed in German intellectual tradition and was present in the atrocities in Namibia continued its trajectory under Nazi rule in Germany and elsewhere. With racist theories of European superiority and doubts whether Africans were human beings with intelligence, the British invasion of Benin was certainly not regretted by people like von Luschan and even long after his time, one seldom hears any expressions of regret by Europeans regarding the killings of thousands of Benin people Edo.

This is in contrast to regrets and apologies rendered in the case of victims of Nazi atrocities and aggressions. Best way to communicate with your phone sex with worldwide dating site at all profiles!

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